Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences
 
Skip Navigation Links
Home
Available Issues
Search
Editorial Board
Information for Authors
Review Process
Copyright
Links and Contacts
  Zanko J Med Sci:  Dec. 2016; 20 (3): 1485-1489

Detection of urinary lactoferrin as an indicator of urinary tract infection in girls

Mohammed Hassan Fatah & Nabeel Elia Waheda & Dik J. Kok
dx.doi.org/10.15218/zjms.2016.0048


Abstract

Background and objective: Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding protein that is related in structure to transferrin. It is considered to be a part of the in­nate immune system. This study aimed to assess the role of urinary lactoferrin (LF) as an indicator for diagnosis of urinary tract infection among girls.

Methods: This study was conducted on girls suffering from UTI. Urine samples were tested for Lactoferrin before and after two months of the treatment using ELISA technique.

Results: Urine specimens were collected from 25 girls with mean age ± SD of 6 ± 3 years without UTI as a control group (C) and 25 girls with mean age ± SD of 5.3 ± 3.18 years diagnosed as suffering from UTI (T1) followed by a set of 25 specimens after two months (T2). The mean concentration of urinary LF ± SD was 670 ± 319 ng/ml in the specimens of control group whereas it was 1387 ± 509 in the specimens of girls with UTI during the infection (T1) and 885 ± 268 after two months (T2). The mean concentrations of urinary LF during the infection (T1) were significantly (P <0.001) increased compared with controls (C) and significantly (P = 0.003) decreased after two months (T2), that may refer to a role of urinary LF in UTI. There was no significant (P = 0.089) difference between the mean concentration of urinary LF after two months (T2) compared with controls (C) that may indicate to the normalization of LF concentration after the treatment synchronously with disappearing of UTI symptoms and significantly reduction of positive urinalysis results.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the elevation of urinary Lactoferrin (LF) in girls suffering from UTI and probably being a good indicator for diagnosis of UTI.

Keywords: Urinary tract infection; Lactoferrin; Girls.


Reference

1. Hellersteim S. Urinary tract infection. Old and new concepts. Pediatr Clin North Am 1995; 42 (6):1433-57.

2. Neville M, Zhang P. Lactoferrin secretion into milk: Comparison between ruminant, murine, and human milk. J him Sci 2000; 78(3):26-35.

3. Lechene D, Figarella C, Sarles H. Immunocytochemical localization of lactoferrin in human pancreas. Hoppe Seylers Physiol Chem 1981; 362:1293–6.

4. Wichmann L, Vaalasti A, Vaalasti T, Tuohimaa P. Localization of lactoferrin in the male reproductive tract. Int J Androl 1989; 12:179– 86.

5. Legrand D, Elass E, Carpentier M, Mazurier J. Lactoferrin: a modulator of immune and inflammatory responses. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 2005; 62: 2549–59.

6. Kanyshkova T, Buneva V, Nevinsky G. Lactoferrin and its biological functions. Biochemistry 2001; 66:1-7.

7. Ellison R. The effects of lactoferrin on gram-negative bacteria. Adv Exp Med Biol 1994; 3575: 71–90.

8. Bellamy W, Takase M, Wakabayashi H, Kawase K, Tomita M. Antibacterial spectrum of lactoferricin B, a potent bactericidal peptide derived from the N-terminal region of bovine lactoferrin. J Appl Bacteriol 1992; 73:472–9.

9. Abrink M, Larsson E, Gobl A, Hellman L. Expression of lactoferrin in the kidney: implications for innate immunity and iron metabolism. Kidney Int 2000; 57(5): 2004-10.

10. Karlowsky J, Hoban D, Decorby R, Laing M, Zhanel G. Fluoroquinolone resistant urinary isolates of Escherichia coli from outpatients are frequently multi-drug: Results from the North American urinary tract infection collaborative alliance-quinolone resistance study. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2006; 50: 2251-4.

11. Smith, PJ, Morris, AJ, Reller, LB. Predicting urine culture results by dipstick testing and phase contrast microscopy. Pathology 2003; 35: 161-5.

12. Bell JM, Paton JC, Turnidge J. Emergence of vancomycin - resistant Enterococci in ustralia: phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of isolate. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36: 2187-90.

13. Kurowski K. The woman with dysuria. Am Fam Physician 1998; 57(9):2155-64.

14. Hummers-Pradier E, Ohse AM, Koch M, Heizmann WR, Kochen MM. Management of urinary tract infections in female general practice patients. Fam Pract 2005; 22(1):71-7.

1. Bakker E, Van Sprundel M, Van der Aurwera J, Van Gool D, Wyndaele J. Voiding habits and wetting in a population of 4332 Belgian schoolchildren aged between 10 and 14 years. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2002; 36(5):354-62.

1. Braunwald E, Fauci A, Kasper D, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson J. Harrison’s 15th ed. Vol. 2. Principles of Internal Medicine, New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001. P. 1620-5.

17. Arao S, Matsuura S, Nonomura M, Miki K, Kabasawa K, Nakanishi H. Measurement of urinary lactoferrin as a marker of urinary tract infection. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37: 553 -7.

18. Gill K, Malone-Lee J, Brenton T, Kupelian A, Horsley H, Sathiananthamoorthy S, et al. Urinary Lactoferrin as a promising, new, improved marker for urinary tract infection. Intern Urogynecol J 2012; 23: 164-5.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.